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Identify the main stakeholders and how to engage with them

When implementing skills development in your organization, it can be quite overwhelming what tasks need to be done first in order to build effective training for your workforce. This is amplified by a vast TVET ecosystem in which there are many players to partner with. In this section, we mainly want to introduce you to the three main actors of TVET but also highlight the facilitators of the ecosystem which are critical to its operational and long-term success

What tasks should you focus on first?

the Key actors in tvet

To build a successful and cooperative TVET system, three main actors need to be considered: the public, the private and the education sector. In this context, each party must play its own role while continuously cooperating with the other actors involved. This results in both internal and external roles to be played by each party in the TVET ecosystem.

Public Sector

The public sector in the form of the government and its corresponding agencies is mainly in charge to set-up the rules and regulations of the playing field as well as to establish the required educational infrastructure

Education Sector

The TVET schools represent the executing body of the education sector and are responsible to deliver the theoretical part of training to the students

Private Sector

The private sector in the form of companies is responsible for the practical work-based training to increase the work-readiness of trainees

Tasks of the Private Sector

Each company’s internal and external tasks with the TVET ecosystem are explained in detail below. Since your organization is new to skills development, we recommend that you focus primarily on the internal tasks. However, the sooner you start collaborating with other players in the ecosystem, the sooner your skills development initiatives will become more effective and eventually pay off:

Internal Tasks

  • Providing Work-Based Training Opportunities

    In order to equip future employees with the appropriate skills, companies must offer practical training opportunities in their facilities. In order to train TVET trainees to meet a company's needs and skill requirements, they must be exposed to practical experience in the workplace so that they can better apply the theoretical knowledge they have acquired in school. This type of "reality check" is called work-based training. Forms of work-based training can include internships or even apprenticeship opportunities where companies partner with TVET schools to provide a rotating periodic mix of school-based and work-based training. Find corresponding hands-on examples in our Practice Cases section.

  • Exposure to Equipment and Practical Examination

    To improve the results of work-based training, companies must offer their potential future employees additional opportunities for learning in practice. This includes direct training on equipment, including machines, tools or software needed for daily work processes. Often, the equipment in TVET schools is different from that in individual companies. Consequently, trainees already learn all the necessary skills to deal with the company's equipment specifications and are therefore readily prepared for work. In this context, it is also recommended to conduct a practical examination at the end of the work-based training in cooperation with the TVET school in order to assess the trainees' qualifications and to underpin the decision as to which trainees should ultimately be taken on for future employment in the company.

  • Installment and Training of In-Company Trainers

    To effectively increase the productive outcomes of trainees during their work-based training, it is recommended that trainees are supported by dedicated and experienced trainers. These so-called in-company trainers guide trainees in learning practical work skills that are aligned with their skill level and curricula, such as the proper use of company-owned machinery or IT systems. With these newly acquired skills, trainees are prepared to work directly in their training company after completing the TVET school. In order to keep up with current skill requirements, work processes and technologies, in-company trainers must also receive continuous training and therefore have the opportunity to complete training alongside their actual job. In addition, in-company trainers are often responsible for coordinating school-based and work-based training and therefore coordinate the relevant activities between the company and the TVET school. For more information on the application of in-company trainers, please visit our In-Company Training section.

External Tasks

  • Skill Demand & Supply Planning

    No one knows better what skills are in demand than private companies themselves. Nevertheless, companies face the challenge of not hiring enough workers and, at the same time, hiring unqualified workers who do not meet the qualification requirements. To overcome this mismatch, the private sector needs to openly state its skill requirements so that the authorities can implement them in the education system. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that businesses participate in the public discourse on TVET by engaging either individually or in a joined-up approach, such as through business membership organizations and sector skills councils, which are important facilitators to represent the needs of the private sector to the government. In addition, it is generally recommended to seek formal membership in such bodies to stay informed of trends and developments in the market. Find out more about companies’ participation opportunities in our section of Country Regulations under Private Sector Cooperation.

  • Set-Up of Examination and Skill Standards

    In order to make TVET and thus the assessment of trainees comparable, it is recommended that the private, public and education sectors agree on certain skill standards for occupations. With such standards, companies have the assurance that they will receive a certain qualification when they hire a trainee, but trainees also receive greater security for their future employability. To benefit from this win-win situation, companies are encouraged to contribute to demand-driven skills that trainees should acquire during their training. Accordingly, at the local level, companies have the opportunity to work directly with schools to align with curricula, and also to engage in examinations to monitor desired outcomes. At the public level, companies can promote skill standards through sector skills councils or BMOs, which support the private sector as a collective voice to government. Find corresponding hands-on examples in our Practice Cases section.


  • Future Skill Mapping

    In addition to quantifying current skill needs, the future of work is also relevant in order to remain competitive on national and global markets. Particularly in light of Industry 4.0 and digitalization, there will be a shift in job profiles that will require new and adapted skills from the workforce. For the private sector, this means that companies will not only have to quickly adopt the relevant new technologies, but also focus in particular on the qualification of their own employees in order to take advantage of and benefit from these emerging opportunities. The better the workforce is trained and adapted in this regard, the more likely companies that adapt to future trends early on will have a chance to remain competitive or even thrive as new market leaders. As a recommendation to the private sector, it is extremely important to participate in the discourse on future skills mapping, as this can provide access to new trends and cutting-edge technology. In addition, companies can participate in defining future skills needs that will be reflected in training content and curricula to foster school partnerships, as described in the next task. To further inform yourself and stay ahead of your competition, please visit our Future Trends  section.

  • Development of School Partnerships

    To put specific skill standards for occupations into practice, the private and education sectors must develop a mutually agreed agenda that aligns school-based and work-based training. To this end, businesses and TVET schools can form partnerships that closely coordinate training and skill outcomes. This collaboration can begin with companies supporting schools with modern equipment on which trainees can learn directly for their future careers, or even lead to the joint development of curricula specifically tailored to the needs of the industry. As a result, companies get a workforce with a high degree of operational fit because the trainees already have a solid level of industry knowledge and skills, eliminating the need for costly retraining once they are hired. Thrive from increased productivity from day one and find more information as well as different entry points for School Partnerships.

Facilitators of TVET

Since it would be challenging to accomplish each task alone and properly place skills needs with government agencies, companies engaged in skills development should also consider working with facilitators in the TVET ecosystem. In this context, umbrella organizations that aggregate private sector requirements play an important role in helping companies maximize the benefits of training their workforce

For the private sector, certain sponsors are of particular importance and can be divided into two groups; actors that support collaboration with either the public or the education sector

Facilitators of Private and Public Sector Collaboration
  • Business Membership Organizations (BMOs): BMOs are the advocates for the private sector and the voice of the industry to the government. Through constant interaction and communication with their corporate members, BMOs have their finger on the pulse of the industry and can therefore summarize trends, requirements and needs of their members. In turn, they can bring these issues to the attention of the public sector. In this context, they not only provide their own training services, but also participate in the public discourse on education system development and improvement.
  • TVET Agencies: Cooperation of the business sector is also possible in national TVET agencies. In certain countries, these agencies form a link between the public-law task of TVET and the private-sector interests. Particularly in countries where the business sector regards state organizations with skepticism and distance, agencies can provide a focus for skill development initiatives and, at the same time, provide a place for business sector engagement.
  • Sector Skills Councils (SSCs): SSCs are independent, employer-led organizations which seek to build a skills system that is driven by employer demand. It is the place where the public and private sector come together to align with a mutual skills development strategy. Hereby, they collaboratively propose new and develop further existing occupations as well as conduct labor market analysis and develop skills needs forecast for the sector. The overall goal is to promote TVET by providing skills and training advice to enterprises.
Facilitators of Private and Education Sector Collaboration
  • Supervisory and Advisory Bodies: At the local level, supervisory and advisory boards for TVET schools offer companies the opportunity to interact directly with the supply side of trainees. In these boards, companies come together to align the planning of school-based training with their skills needs. By interacting, they can shape industry skill standards and therefore foster skill standards as well as transparency about skills requirements in their specific industry. Another positive outcome is a reduced poaching of well qualified workforce among industry competitors.